Stair industry definition and classification
First, the stairs industry definition:
The building is used as a component for vertical traffic between floors. Used for traffic links between floors and large differences. In the multi-storey and high-rise buildings with elevators and escalators as the main vertical means of transport, stairs are also provided. High-rise buildings, despite the use of elevators as the main vertical means of transport, but still have to keep the stairs for fire when the escape.
Stair industry definition and classification
The stairs consist of successive steps (also known as ladders), platforms (rest platforms) and enclosures. The lowest level of the staircase and the highest level of stepping the horizontal projection distance for the staircase, the total height of the staircase is high. During the Warring States period, the image of the heavy house on the bronze was engraved with stairs. 15 to 16th century Italy, the indoor staircase from the traditional closed space in the liberation, making it a change in shape with a decorative part of the building.
Second, the stair classification:
Building as a component for inter-floor traffic. By the continuous steps of the ladder, platform and envelope structure. It is also necessary to set up a staircase in a high-rise building with an elevator. Stairs are divided into two categories: ordinary staircase and special staircase. Ordinary staircase includes reinforced concrete staircase, steel staircase and wooden staircase, including reinforced concrete staircase in the structural stiffness, fire, cost, construction, modeling and so has more advantages, the most common application. Special staircase mainly have safety ladder, fire ladder, escalator 3 kinds.
According to the space can be divided into indoor stairs and outdoor stairs. Indoor staircase, literal has been explained clearly, the application with a variety of residential interior, due to the pursuit of indoor beautiful and comfortable, indoor staircase to solid wood staircase, steel staircase, steel and glass, reinforced concrete or a variety of mixed materials, Is the most widely used stairs in high-end residential buildings, steel and glass mixed structure stairs in the modern office area, office buildings, shopping malls, exhibition hall and other applications, reinforced concrete staircase is widely used in a variety of duplex buildings.
Outdoor staircase due to take into account the wind and rain and other natural factors, the general appearance of beautiful solid wood stairs, steel stairs, metal stairs and so on is not appropriate, reinforced concrete staircase, a variety of stone staircase is the most common. More industry information can be found in the "stairs industry market survey report."
According to the material is divided into reinforced concrete staircase, steel stairs, wooden stairs and so on.
1, reinforced concrete staircase
In the structural stiffness, fire, cost, construction and modeling, etc. have more advantages, the most common application. The construction method of the reinforced concrete staircase has three kinds of castings, prefabricated, partially cast and partially prefabricated: the whole site cast, the rigidity is good, it is suitable for buildings with special requirements and high earthquake requirements, but the template Costly, longer construction period. Prefabricated staircase components are large, medium and small. Large is the entire ladder and platform prefabricated into a component; medium is the ladder and the platform pre-made into a component, the use of a wider; small is the staircase of the ramp, step, platform beam and board Made of various small components, with welding, anchor, bolt, pin and other methods to connect into the whole. There is also a small type of prefabricated L-shaped stepping components, according to the stairs slope in the side wall, a cantilevered staircase. Small prefabricated assembly of the construction method of adaptability, transportation and installation is simple, low cost.
Part of the site pouring and part of the prefabricated assembly, usually the first mold casting staircase beam, and then install the prefabricated and platform plate, and then in the three reserved steel joints to pour concrete, even into the whole. This method saves the template and reduces the duration compared to the overall field pouring, but still retains the precise characteristics of the prefabricated components, and can adjust the size and form.
Reinforced concrete staircase requires easy surface walking, wear, slip, easy to clean. The surface layer of the material is generally made of cement mortar, can be used as a terrazzo or brick, marble veneer, as well as oil carpet, plastic bedding and carpets. Stepping near the tread, available cement emery, mosaic, plastic, rubber and other anti-skid, or with a groove of ceramic or metal materials package tread, and play a protective role.
2, steel stairs
Used for plant and warehouse. In public buildings, more use as fire evacuation stairs. The load-bearing components of the steel staircase can be made of steel, and the joints of the components are generally anchored or welded by bolts. Anti - rust coating for surface coating. Stepping and platform plate is easy to use embossed or grid plate non-slip. In order to reduce noise and consider the finishes, laying elastic surface or concrete, stone and other surface layer on the steel pedal; can also be directly on the steel beam laying reinforced concrete or stone step, this staircase called modular staircase.
3, wooden stairs
Due to fire, the scope of application is limited. There are two kinds of dark step and Mingbu type. Stepped in the stairs oblique beam (also known as staircase to help) within the groove for the dark step; nailed to the triangular wood on the beam for the Ming step. Wooden stairs surface coating with anti-corrosion.
According to the functional distinction between the main safety ladder, fire ladder, escalator three.
1, safety ladder
Also known as evacuation staircase, for residential, public buildings and multi-storey buildings emergency evacuation flow. In addition to the high level of fire-resistant low-rise public buildings and six residential units below six, other such as medical, performance, sports and more than 5 layers of collective dormitories, hotels and other civil buildings, and according to the provisions of each layer more than 100 to 300 Square meters, and the same time the production of more than 5 to 25 people in the multi-storey workshop, should be considered outside the main staircase and then set for emergency evacuation stairs. More than 10 floors of residential or high-rise buildings, in order to prevent the building fire when the elevator shaft and stairway to lose the ability to run vertical traffic, to be smoke staircase.
The number and width of the safety ladder are determined according to the needs of the evacuation stream and the slope is not greater than 45 °. Safety ladder open to the aisle door, should use the fire limit of 1.5 hours or more fire doors, above can be set to automatically fire equipment. The doors of the safety ladder exit shall be open to the outside and shall not interfere with the traffic and shall be connected to the outdoor space or road. Evacuation stairs such as set outdoors, smoke quickly, the evacuation effect is better. Safety ladders are mostly cast-in-place reinforced concrete stairs or steel stairs.
2, fire ladder
Usually a steel staircase, designed for use by firefighters, whose location and quantity are determined by the nature of the building, the number of floors and the fire protection requirements. Fire ladder straight and tilt two categories: straight on the type of steel ladder, limited to one or two layers within the range of use; tilt slope of 60 ° ~ 80 °, need to set the handrails, Rest platform and so on. High-rise buildings in order to use the needs and safety, on the platform to leave no less than 600 × 700 mm three sides of the column lift. Fire ladder the next level, to be 2 to 2.5 meters from the ground, to prevent idlers climbing.
By the cross between the floor of the steel truss and equipped with stepping gears, pulleys, rails, activities, such as connecting rod, with electricity. The gradient of the escalator is about 30 °, and the width is single and double, and the speed should be about 0.5 m / s. The arrangement of the escalator is parallel, crossed, mixed and so on. Escalator has a high passenger capacity and can continue through the characteristics of the flow of people, for department stores, stations, underground railways and other public places, as well as high-rise buildings in the local flow of more concentrated floor.
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